Recent fossil discoveries in central Asia have turned the “out of Africa” theory of human evolution upside down. Now two Russian geneticists show that DNA disproves the theory. There findings were published in Advances in Anthropology. The entire article can be read online. Click Here.
From Advances in Anthropology…
There are, however, four distinct SNPs which present in both Africans and Europeans of haplogroup R1a1, taken the latter as an example. They seem to be the most ancient SNPs, which are defined the alpha-haplogroup (see Figure 3). Tables 1 and 2 illustrate this statement.
The ancestral alleles of the above four SNPs should corre- spond to the alpha haplogroup. All four are mutated in hap- logroup R1a1, and the WTY data show. All four are still ances- tral in the A1 subclade. All other subclades of haplogroup A show various combinations of the SNPs which do not match those in haplogroup R1a1 (see also Table 2).
logroup R1a1, it maintains their ancestral state.
Table 2 shows SNPs of five subclades of “African” hap- logroup A. None of those SNPs have been observed in hap-
These data, based on the SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymor- phism), along with the data based on the STRs (Short Tandem Repeats), described in this study, are compatible with each other and undeniably indicate that non-African people, bearers of haplogroups from C to T, did not descend from the “African” haplogroups A or B. Their origin is likely not in Africa. A higher variance of the DNA in Africa, which was a cornerstone of the “Out of Africa” theory, is explained by Figure 3, in which haplogroup A has been evolving (mutation-wise) for 132,000 years, while the non-European haplogroups are much younger. Hence, there is a lower variability in the latter. The same is related to language variability, which has also been used as an argument of the African origin of non-Africans. We believe that those arguments upon which the “Out of Africa” theory was based were, in fact, conjectural, incomplete and not actually data-driven. Therefore, we are left holding the question of the origin of Homo sapiens.
Based on palaeoarchaeological evidence, the region, where anatomically modern humans have likely originated, is com- prised of a vast territory from Central Europe in the west to the Russian Plain in the east to Levant in the south. Each of these regions is renowned for discoveries of the oldest skeletal re- mains of modern humans dating back to 42,000 – 44,000 ybp. To date, none of these sub-regions has clear and unequivocal advances in this regard.